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98.6 Degrees Fahrenheit Isn’t the Average Anymore

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Jo Craven McGinty, reporting for The Wall Street Journal:

Nearly 150 years ago, a German physician analyzed a million temperatures from 25,000 patients and concluded that normal human-body temperature is 98.6 degrees Fahrenheit. That standard has been published in numerous medical texts and helped generations of parents judge the gravity of a child’s illness. But at least two dozen modern studies have concluded the number is too high.

The findings have prompted speculation that the pioneering analysis published in 1869 by Carl Reinhold August Wunderlich was flawed.

Or was it?

In a new study, researchers from Stanford University argue that Wunderlich’s number was correct at the time but is no longer accurate because the human body has changed. Today, they say, the average normal human-body temperature is closer to 97.5 degrees Fahrenheit.

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fancycwabs
22 days ago
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That's been my base temperature for as long as I can remember. Don't know if it's a general change in people today or maybe that a sample of 25,000 patients from 150 years ago would have a lot more people fighting infections that we now vaccinate folks for.
Nashville, Tennessee
samuel
24 days ago
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Is this about better nutrition?
Cambridge, Massachusetts
WorldMaker
23 days ago
A response to climate change, perhaps?
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3 public comments
sarcozona
8 days ago
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The fact the doctors don’t know this is a very real problem.
shanel
28 days ago
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Interesting...
New York, New York
sirshannon
29 days ago
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Nice. I thought it was just me.

In case you were wondering: which emoji scissors close and which do not.

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In case you were wondering: which emoji scissors close and which do not.

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fancycwabs
23 days ago
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Nashville, Tennessee
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The Joker’s Defense Lawyers: “Our Client Did Nothing Wrong”

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President Trump “did absolutely nothing wrong,” White House counsel Pat Cipollone said Saturday, as lawyers representing the president got their first shot to poke holes in the impeachment case made this week by Democrats. — NPR, 1/25/20

- - -

Ladies and gentlemen of the jury, in this closing statement I will prove beyond a shadow of a doubt that my client, The Joker, is completely innocent.

What are we dealing with here? Why are we here? Are we here because a psychopath with a sadistic sense of humor tried to kill Batman? Or are we here before this court because from the moment he began his failed career as a stand-up comedian, there was a desire among the do-nothing prosecutors to see The Joker go to prison?

The fact that this trial even exists proves how unfairly our client has been treated. Critics have been out to get The Joker ever since he innocently began to commit armed robberies. Any fair-minded person watching the trial today will be able to see how terribly our client has been treated. The Deep-State investigators are the real criminals here. Holding rich white men who wear grotesque amounts of make-up accountable for their actions is something that should never be allowed to happen again!

The absurd thing is that Batman isn’t dead. In fact, he’s not even here in this courtroom. Where’s the crime? Where are the victims? Can anyone answer me that? I didn’t think so.

It was a perfect plot to kill Batman. There was no pressure put on anyone. No one even complained until Harvey Dent started asking questions. What the prosecution is doing is a disgrace to Gotham’s criminal justice system. No one has been victimized by the criminal justice system as much as our client, The Joker, and his perfect plot. This is a witch hunt. A Russian show trial. A Kafkaesque purge. I will use the term lynching here without any awareness of what that word really means and its historical context.

If there is any doubt as to my client’s innocence, I ask the jury to look at the neck of the lawyer prosecuting this case. It’s slender. Now look at our client’s neck, which is as thick as the maximum dosage of Adderall. What is more convincing than the comparable width of the necks of the prosecuting attorney in relation to our client’s neck?

Our client, The Joker, has done nothing wrong. It was a beautiful plot. Read the banknotes.

We reject this case as illegitimate. These brazen and unlawful claims against our client set a dangerous precedent. The motivation of those prosecuting this case is nothing more than an obsessive desire to hurt our client, the most innocent man in the history of men.

What laws did The Joker even break? As the sole survivor of a gang of bank robbers, he was acting entirely appropriately and within his powers. When asked if he broke the law, The Joker REPEATEDLY said, “No laws broken. A perfect plot.” I ask you, are these the words of someone who has committed a crime?

Are any of the core facts of this case in dispute? No. Did our client admit to trying to kill Batman on national television? Yes. Does the Penguin’s forthcoming tell-all book The Lair Where It Happened confirm the Joker is lying? Also yes. Is the Joker, in fact, kind of synonymous with the word “lying” at this point? Still again, the answer is yes.

But that proves nothing. Furthermore, the defense team will provide no evidence at this time to buttress our claim of our client’s innocence. We don’t need to provide exculpatory documents either. It’s enough that we’ve blocked all efforts of the prosecutor to access relevant documents in this case. That was clever of us. It’s enough that these words are coming out of my mouth.

The Joker never sought any personal gain in his attempt to kill Batman. He sought no financial advantage. He was entirely motivated by the desire to root out corruption in Gotham. No witnesses are needed. This case is not really about The Joker’s wrongdoing. This entire process is really about the prosecutor, his slender neck, a perfect plot to kill Batman, and a man called The Joker who has been victimized by absolutely everyone. And now, if you’ll allow me to enter into the evidence this nifty smoke machine and this mesmerizing mirror, I rest my case.

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fancycwabs
25 days ago
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Nashville, Tennessee
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A plot with music samples lets you experience the 13 dimensions of emotions music may evoke.

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A plot with music samples lets you experience the 13 dimensions of emotions music may evoke.

↩︎ University of California, Berkeley

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fancycwabs
35 days ago
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Cool
Nashville, Tennessee
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Misleading political ads are the user’s problem to avoid, Facebook says

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Following months of criticism for its decision to allow candidates for political office to tell outright lies in advertising, Facebook is trying to correct course not by changing advertiser behavior but by telling users to opt out of being shown certain ads.

Facebook today announced a change to its political ad system that will "expand transparency." Sometime during 2020, users in all countries where political ads feature "paid for by..." disclaimers, including the United States, will gain an account control for seeing "fewer political and social issue ads" on both Facebook and Instagram. US users are expected to get the feature sometime this summer—well into the depths of the 2020 US presidential campaign season.

Facebook said in October that all content posted by politicians and political candidates, including paid advertising, would be exempt from any of the company's fact-checking processes and would not be held to company standards barring intentionally misleading content. That policy, or lack thereof, has continued to come under fire as other key Internet and social media players, including Google and Twitter, amended their policies to limit or ban political advertising on their platforms.

The only major exception to Facebook's otherwise laissez-faire political advertising policy is a ban on content that promotes voter suppression (or tries to suppress responses to the 2020 US Census). Enforcement of the ban on voter suppression, however, appears to be haphazard at best, according to an October report.

"We recognize this is an issue that has provoked much public discussion—including much criticism of Facebook's position," the company said as part of its announcement today. "We are not deaf to that and will continue to work with regulators and policy makers in our ongoing efforts to help protect elections."

One big fan

Facebook's framing of misleading political ads and certain political ad targeting as a user problem generated immediate blowback from politicians, consumer advocates, and government officials.

Federal Election Commissioner Ellen Weintraub had particularly harsh words for the company. "Facebook's weak plan suggests the company has no idea how seriously it is hurting democracy," she wrote on Twitter. "Here, proposing 'transparency' solutions is window-dressing when Facebook needs to be putting out the housefire it has lit."

She added, "These so-called 'transparency' solutions are neither transparent nor solutions... I am not willing to bet the 2020 elections on the proposition that Facebook has solved its problems with a solution whose chief feature appears to be that it doesn't seriously impact the company's profit margins."

Several contenders running to be the Democratic nominee in the 2020 presidential race also lambasted Facebook over the move, including Sen. Elizabeth Warren (D-Mass.) and former Vice President Joe Biden.

"Make no mistake, this has nothing to do with transparency and choice," said Rep. David Cicilline (D-RI)—chairman of the House Antitrust Subcommittee, which is probing Facebook's business practices. "This is about money. Specifically, the $6 billion that will be spent on political ads in 2020 that Facebook will use to continue increasing their profits at the expense of our democracy."

Facebook did gain support from one powerful quarter for its plan, however. A spokesman for the Trump campaign applauded the maneuver, saying , "Our ads are always accurate, so it's good that Facebook won't limit political messages."

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fancycwabs
42 days ago
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I figured out how to avoid misleading political ads on facebook a couple of months ago when I deleted my account.
Nashville, Tennessee
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lousyd
42 days ago
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What are they supposed to do? As soon as they say they'll police ads for lies they'll get blowback for perceived partisanship. (By all sides.)
Wilmington, NC, USA
fxer
41 days ago
That’s fine? It’s the cost of entry now if they still want to accept certain types of ad dollars, moderating them.
lousyd
41 days ago
Do we hold newspapers and network tv to the same obligations of reviewing political advertising content? I honestly don't know, but it would seem unfair if it's only Facebook that had to do that and not other forms of media.
acdha
43 days ago
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“We get the money, you get the mess”
Washington, DC

An interactive tool lets you create an elevation map—aka "joy plot"—of any region on Earth.

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An interactive tool lets you create an elevation map—aka "joy plot"—of any region on Earth.

↩︎ GitHub

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fancycwabs
45 days ago
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Nashville, Tennessee
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